Post by lordroel on Feb 24, 2020 21:00:38 GMT
Grant and Sherman Return to the United States
Once the surrender and parole of the United States Army under Grant was attained, General Lee and his men took the remainder of April to ensure that their former foes were treated with magnanimity and given food and shelter, and returned home promptly. By April 30, General Lee, General Jackson, General Stuart, along with General Hill, Ewell, and Longstreet, bid farewell to General Grant, Howard, McPherson, and the other Union generals, gave them all an official gun salute of 19 cannons as they retired to the United States, exiting Virginia.
In Louisville, Kentucky, it took the Confederates about 2 weeks to properly process, duplicate the muster rolls, and parole the Union army remaining. General Johnston was gracious to his defeated foes, and allowed them quite elaborate dinners with fresh beef, fresh vegetables, and wines, despite the cost to him personally. Over the two weeks, the Confederates ensured their defeated former enemies were housed and fed, and overall the quality of food increased as fresh food came in from Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana.
General Kirby Smith and General Taylor paroled the Union Army in St. Louis, while the Confederate governor began restoring order in the capital of Jefferson City, trying to re-open the civil government and civil courts, and begin what he expected to be a plebiscite on the future of his state, whether it would become a Union state or a Confederate state, despite being represented in both nations' Congresses. The unfortunate thing of the war in Missouri was the presence of John Turchin, who was not above allowing his troops to burn and destroy anything in their way, in both the north and south of the state; he was court-martialled, but knowingly had it stopped by the cabinet and was promoted by President Lincoln to brigadier general before his court-martial was complete, and allowed to operate in Missouri and Arkansas with impunity.
As the Union armies dispersed North into the United States, around 75,000 of the blacks who had born the Union uniform, former slaves who had been 'drafted' as it were, returned South, without their uniforms. Per treaty they would be given clemency for their part, though their experiences in the Union army would be felt for years through the south.
General Lee Goes Home
Stratford Hall, childhood home of General Lee
While General Lee's home in Arlington had since been looted by Union soldiers, and its possessions disbursed, he had been renting a home in Richmond. On June the 20th, Lee received a letter that Henry Storke and his wife sold the plantation to his nephew, Fitzhugh Lee, for $100, and he subsequently gifted it to his father, surprising him by riding together with him, his wife, and their sisters to Westmoreland County.
The six members of the Lee family rode their horses, and the carriage for the ladies, before coming up on the old plantation.
"I have some of the fondest memories of this place," Lee said with a tinge of sadness, remembering his father losing the home due to his financial issues.
"Well, father, the Storkes and I would like you to be able to make new memories in it," Fitz said to his father, handing him a key to the door. "They sold it to me, and I have signed over the deed to your name with the county courthouse. The property is yours, father. Welcome home."
Lee's eyes watered a bit, and a smile crept onto his face. "Thank you son. Thank you," he said, giving his son a handshake that turned into a hug.
The family smiled and hugged for a few moments, until the Lees left their horses, and entered the house. It had been well maintained, but the furniture had not arrived from Richmond as of yet.
"Everything will be here on Tuesday," Fitz said. Two days later. "We can stay in a hotel if we wish until then."
Fitz treated his family to dinner at one of the nearest hotels, as the family spoke animatedly about home and hearth. Robert E. Lee's heart was warmer than it had been in a long time. For the first time in a long time, he truly had a home, and he had his family with him.
Alexandria, Virginia (June 28)
With the Senate having ratified the treaty, the Confederate States began working on disinterring the Union soldiers that the US Army had buried in Robert Lee's yard, so as to prevent him from ever returning home, and returning the bodies home to the United States. The Confederate Congress sent a letter to Lee saying that he could return to the land, but he declined graciously, with a note saying "Let the land be a memorial to those who died to protect the right of the people to a government by consent of the governed, and the right to liberty for all Confederates who served."
Several days later, the Confederate Congress established Arlington National Confederate Cemetery, with the consent of the Lee family, who was compensated $520,000 for the land and the loss of nearly all their belongings, which were looted during the Union occupation of the house.
Soon, several monuments were established at the entrances to the cemetery land, bearing the names of several generals during the war:
One of seven gates, each named for the seven original generals of the Confederacy: Samuel Cooper, Albert Johnston, Joseph Johnston, Robert Lee, Pierre Beauregard, Braxton Bragg, Edmund Kirby Smith.
The first monumental gate, known as the Lee Gate, was built in 1865 from red stone:
The entrance to the land was constructed and dedicated by November 11, 1865:
The final battle is traditionally held to be April 26th when Johnston defeated Sherman, and on that day every year, all gravestones are decorated with the battle flag of the Confederate States:
Washington, DC (June 29)
The US Congress designated a far away portion of the federal district as a National Cemetery, taking the heights from Fort Greble, Fort Carroll, and Fort Snyder to the border, and began interring bodies coming home from Alexandria. They named the area Union National Cemetery, and built the first monument to the 'Civil War Unknowns' later in 1865.
In honor of those who fought for the preservation of the Union, the United States placed this memorial in October of 1865 in Union National Cemetery.
California Cession (July 2)
The Union State of California passed a bill authorizing the cession of all land south of 37° N to the Confederate States, at $17.50 per acre, being a total of $1,426,590.38 for the 81519.45 acres ceded to the Confederacy. The cession itself was greeted with cheers in some crowds, and boos by others. Some were happy to be rid of the southerners who had settled southern California since 1850, with a sense of 'good riddance' to them. Others thought they should be expelled from the state, that once a free state was created that it shouldn't have to cede land to a bunch of slave owners.
The Confederate Territory of California would be declared on the 7th of July, with its capital at San Diego.
Territorial flag for California, based on the Gillis Flag.
The territorial legislature quickly met and passed a variation on the Gillis Flag as the territorial flag, with 15 stars (despite the national flag having only 13 stars on it, this flag was counting Missouri already as the 14th state, making this the 15th eventual state).
Ratification Celebration (July 4)
While it had delayed things, finally President Lincoln agreed to meet with his counterpart at the border of Alexandria and Virginia, shaking hands and exchanging ratifications of the treaty.
"President Davis," Lincoln said, finally, after 4 years, admitting to the title of Jefferson Davis, shaking his hand.
"President Lincoln," Davis said, acknowledging his counterpart.
The band had played Hail to the Chief when both men entered the stage, which spanned the Alexandria-Virginia border, then the Star-Spangled Banner, and then Dixie, while the men exchanged their ratifications.
The moment they shook hands and stood next to one another was photographed by dozens of cameras, and the pictures still memorialized in history books to this day.
Davis appeared with his wife, Varina, who held the hands of Jim Limbor Davis (their adopted black son), and Margaret (born 1855), along with Jeff Davis, Jr., Joseph Evan, William Howell, and Varina Anne. Unannounced, but Varina was pregnant with another daughter, who would be known as Sarah Anne. Lincoln's wife did appear but at some distance, while his other family were present, including Robert Todd Lincoln, Mary Eunice, Edward Baker, William Wallace, and Thomas Lincoln III.
Both men spoke briefly, and there was a 21-gun salute afterward before both departed for their respective capitals.
"It is unfortunate that the recent war became necessary," President Lincoln said, getting close to an old line from his second inaugural where he blamed the war on the Confederates, "but having concluded peace with our southern brethren, let us strive for charity for all and malice toward none."
"We look forward to peace and free commerce with our neighbors and brothers to the north," President Davis said. "Let us put the recent unpleasantness behind us, and move forward as two sovereign American nations seeking liberty and justice for all."
The full speeches are available in the national archives of both nations.
Richmond Celebrates (July 4)
The trip back to Richmond took some time for those over in Alexandria, but the early morning ceremony meant that many of those present were able to return to Richmond by late afternoon when a military parade took place through the streets of Richmond and in front of the capital building. Confederate soldiers, black and white, marched in formation in brand new uniforms, freshly woven and tailored, bearing all their medals and promotions earned.
The uniforms were slightly changed from those worn during the war, not having the sleeve Austrian knots. Enlisted ranks were sewn on the sleeves, mirroring the officer 9-rank structure with 1, 2, or 3 diagonal slashes for privates of varying seniority, 1 chevron for corporal, 2 for sergeant, and 3 for staff sergeants. 3 chevrons with 1, 2, or 3 bows over it would be for first sergeant, sergeant major, and master sergeant of the Confederate Army. Quartermaster Sergeant was made a position instead of a rank in May, as was ordnance sergeant, though those continued having distinct rank patches until 1892. First sergeant retained the diamond badge until 1878, when master sergeant took the star emblem as the only upper rank containing something within the dark space, until the early 1920s, when first sergeants regained the diamond in their chevrons. Each State had their own representation on the uniform. Each State had buttons with the state initials on them. Floridians had the six-pointed Florida Star on their kepis, for example. Enlisted would have a single-breasted uniform, while officers had a double-breasted uniform.
Atlanta (July 6)
Having processed the last of the Yankees, Captain James David Johnson, promoted again due to the recommendation of Lieutenant General Patrick Cleburne to General Joseph E. Johnston, had finally finished helping the Saylors complete their new home, built on the foundations of the old home, looking almost exactly like the old one, if not for the slightly different colors, wood used for doors and railing, and newer furnishings.
"Thank you again," said Henry Saylor. "We can't thank you and the Army of Tennessee enough. We have a home again."
"You're more than welcome, Mr. Saylor," Johnson said with a smile. Five freedmen, all soldiers with home Johnson had served, had been a huge help in finding materials to rebuild the house. Aside from them, Lt. Col. Cleary (also promoted), Sgt Robert Crane, and Sgt Darryl Polite had all helped rebuild the house. "We're just trying to rebuild and move forward from the war."
"Speaking of moving forward, I approve of you and my daughter courting," Mr. Saylor said, sincerely. "I know you will treat her right."
Johnson's eyes brightened and a smile appeared on his face. "You can count on me, sir. I love your daughter from the depths of my heart."
"I can see it every time you're together," he said.
In the past six months, the people of Atlanta had done an impressive job in trying to rebuild their town. Buildings which had been destroyed had been cleared and rebuilt, while buildings which had been simply damaged had been repaired, with some owners leaving the bullet and artillery damage present as a reminder of what happened. Unfortunately, some black soldiers and white soldiers had died as a result of unexploded shells exploding when disturbed, but by and large, Atlanta was over 2/3 back to normal.
Arkansas (July 14)
Lt. General Cleburne and his now wife, Susan, found themselves back in Cleburne's adopted home town of Helena, Arkansas, near the Mississippi River. He was greeted, to his surprise, with a parade of black men, cheering and waving his Corps's flag, the Third National Flag, the square Battle Flag, and the Battle Flag of the Army of Tennessee (reversed blue and red version of the Battle Flag).
A huge lunch was prepared with a large amount of food, including tea that someone had decided to put sugar into.
It took some time for Cleburne to return home; he had to participate in the official surrender up in Louisville, process his troops out of service to return home, decide who would be promoted, who would be retained to help civilians and refugees be returned home and rebuild fences and homes, and how to return black refugees to their homes. On his way home, black men and women would cheer him as the 'First Emancipator' and shake his hand, which often flustered him or made his cheeks red. Battle was something he knew; fame was not, and he didn't want to turn into a Bragg or a Hood, getting an inflated opinion of his own importance.
Memphis (July 14)
General Forrest newly promoted to a full general for his role in winning the war in the 'west,' finally came home to Memphis, and his wife, Mary Ann. In his entourage were 44 black Confederates, whom he had freed in 1864 when it looked like the Confederacy was going to lose the war*. They had all served in the army with him, and he promised to employ them all, giving them the same wages as a white man, if they finished the war with him.
Once he returned and settled down back in Memphis, he began the Memphis & Little Rock Railroad, and began seeking subscriptions from the locals to help fund construction of the railroad. His subscription model was a modest payment, 50¢, per share, and every share got an equal quarterly payment of the dividends when the railroad would finish. It took $4 million to complete the 133-mile railroad, which eliminated the need for stagecoach and steamboat to travel between the two cities, including a partial relaying of track that was 5.5' gauge instead of the new 6' gauge that Forrest switched to using in 1865. Over 200 black Confederate soldiers purchased several dozen shares a piece, and at $4, there were thousands of customers going back and forth along the railroad once completed. There were 11,500 people who bought shares in the MLR, each share returning about $952.17 back to the people in both Little Rock and Memphis who invested in Forrest's railroad.
Many of the former soldiers who served with Forrest used their funds to build houses for themselves, start businesses, and also bring their families in from the fields to the cities, beginning what would become a renaissance in Memphis in the black population which for the first time was raised out of poverty by investments. The growing black population would find some hard lessons in whom to trust, but fellow veterans were often their best comrades in business as well, helping them invest wisely for the future.
*He did this in the original timeline.
Richmond (July 15)
The Confederate Congress was in session, intent upon fixing some of the issues caused by the war and made evident, including transport, supply, and other logistics.
One of the bills they managed to push through was to pay for surveyors for a transcontinental railroad; since the Confederate constitution forbade paying for internal improvements, the Congress volunteered simply to pay for surveyors for a triple-lane railroad of a 6-foot gauge, while the various states volunteered to float bonds to cover the costs of building railroads. This would be the first in establishing a pattern of interstate compacts to facilitate commerce, keeping such things locally owned and controlled. For the Confederacy, since their railroads were not subsidized as those in the United States were, they kept costs down and quality higher, and none of the Confederate rail companies went bankrupt when the subsidies dried up like in the United States.
One of the surveyors was a young man named Samuel Spencer, who had served in the Confederate Cavalry. Having observed train collisions before, and the damage caused, he was the one who advocated for a triple-track wide-gauge (6') railway across the new Confederacy as straight as possible, to reduce wait times, reduce collisions, and increase speeds. The advantage would be that it would allow round-the-clock simultaneous traffic in both directions, and it would allow faster trains to pass slower trains, allowing for the third track for trains to be out of service for maintenance. The new gauge was set because Spencer believed trains would only get faster, heavier, and haul bigger loads in the future, so the current 4' 8.5" gauge common around the Confederacy would be phased out in favor of the new gauge as lines were built.
Tracks destroyed by the Union army would be melted down and recast into tracks for the new railroads across Dixie.
These triple-track lines would be finished within thirty-five years, the transcontinental from Jacksonville west and from Richmond south being the first to be built. Many single or double-track railroads would be built to connect to this express network, such as the Richmond-Atlanta-New Orleans line (Richmond, Danville, Greensboro, Charlotte, Spartanburg, Atlanta, Montgomery, Hattiesburg, New Orleans).
Samuel Spencer, 1895
James Guthrie had opposed secession, and sided with Lincoln, but his ties to his home state were strong, and he decided to stay there. He petitioned Congress to allow him to survey for a transcontinental railroad, and was assigned Sam Spencer as one of the surveyors.
Algernon Sidney Buford, from Virginia, was designated one of the persons to have surveyed a line from Virginia to Miami, becoming President of the Virginia-Miami Railroad. His surveyed route would go through Norfolk, Savannah, Brunswick, Jacksonville, Daytona, and Miami. He was impressed with the concept of a triple-track railroad and was eager to participate in its construction.
A number of other men would even move south from the midwest to help the Confederates over the next decade to build up their railroads.
This bill would also set the standard Confederate practice of triple-track multi-state railroad lines. Based on the interstate compacts, the Confederates would create two, and later three main east-west lines:
1. Jacksonville to San Diego: Jacksonville, Tallahassee, Mobile, Gulfport, Baton Rouge, Lafayette, Houston, Austin, Fort Stockton, El Paso, Tucson, San Diego
2. Richmond-Salinas: Richmond, Lynchburg, Knoxville, Nashville, Jackson, Memphis, Little Rock, Fort Smith, Oklahoma City, Amarillo, Albuquerque, Flagstaff, Kingman, Bakersfield, Salinas
A third East-West line was added ten years later:
3. Wilmington-San Diego: Wilmington, Florence, Columbia, Augusta, Atlanta, Birmingham, Starkville, Greenville, Texarkana, Dallas, Fort Worth, Abilene, Las Cruces, Tucson, Mexicali, San Diego
A fourth line was added in 1879:
4. Savannah-Dallas: Savannah, Macon, Columbia, Montgomery, Meridian, Jackson, Vicksburg, Shreveport, Dallas
1. Alexandria-Miami: Miami, West Palm Beach, Daytona, St Augustine, Jacksonville, Brunswick, Savannah, North Charleston, Summerville, Myrtle Beach, Wilmington, Jacksonville, New Bern, Windsow, Franklin, VA, Petersburg, Richmond, Fredericksburg, Alexandria
2. Covington-Tampa: Covington, Lexington, Richmond, Knoxville, Chattanooga, Dalton, Atlanta, Macon, Valdosta, Spring Hill, Tampa
3. Louisville-Pensacola: Lousville, Nashville, Birmingham, Montgomery, Pensacola
4. Memphis-New Orleans: Memphis, Grenada, Jackson, Baton Rouge, New Orleans
5. Little Rock-New Iberia: Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Monroe, Alexandria, Lafayette, New Iberia
6. Oklahoma City-Galveston: (Wichita), Oklahoma City, Ardmore, Denton, Dallas, Corsicana, Huntsville, Houston, Galveston
7. Fort Worth-Laredo: Fort Worth, Austin, San Antonio, Laredo
8. Santa Fe-Las Cruces: Santa Fe, Albuquerque, Las Cruces
9. Flagstaff-Tucson: Flagstaff, Phoenix, Tucson
10. Salinas-San Diego: Salinas, Bakersfield, Los Angeles, San Diego
From these main lines, various spurs would be developed, enabling rail transport to almost any city within the Confederacy by 1900.
The first Confederate Transcontinental Railroad would be finished in 1874, with a ticket across the continent costing $65.
Given the performance of the military during the war, the Congress made a bill to upgrade the weaponry of the armed forces. The Spencer Repeating Rifles were purchased in the number of 80,000, plus cartridges for them. Artillery was upgraded to new cannon that was the equal of the Union cannon they faced during the war, with rifling to extend the range. But this exposed the issue of industry for the fledgling nation.
The House Committee on Commerce sought to aid the internal economic situation, somewhat lagging due to the war and destruction of Sherman's March in Kentucky and Tennessee especially. They drafted a bill to purchase the means of production, namely steam engines, machine tools, metal working, and importing that equipment which would be valuable in rail, textiles, military production, and other industries. The eventual bill that made it out of committee agreed to pay for the equipment with the cotton so badly needed in the United Kingdom. They got cotton, the Confederates got machinery.
It wasn't subsidy to industry, which was unconstitutional, as the government sold the equipment on loan to various southern industrialists.
Indians on the Frontier
Given the withdrawal of the United States Army from the frontier, the western frontier of Texas was suffering Indian raids, and the Indian Affairs Committee of the House, under Otho Singleton, ordered 25,000 currently enlisted and officers to proceed to the Arizona and New Mexico territories to pacify the Indians, either by settling them in Oklahoma, expelling them to the United States, or placing them in a reservation. The measure passed the House and Senate, and by August, military forces were marching west to handle the issue of Indian raids.
Given the end of the war, the Confederate Congress began drawing up designs for the seals of each of the federal departments, plus standardized flags for various parts of the government. The House Committee on Flag and Seal came up with several new seals:
Seal of the Confederate Army
Seal of the Confederate Congress (with enough stars to represent the number of states in the Confederacy)
Seal of the President (with stars numbering the same as the states in the Confederacy)
The committee added the additional stars to the Third National Flag, bringing the total up to 14 stars (until Missouri was decided); given the design of the cross, however, representing each state on the cross could sometimes be difficult. Three committee members proposed returning to the first national flag with the stars in a circular pattern, but this proposal did not leave committee, given the hard feelings still present towards the United States.
Another proposal was for the First National Flag to become the peacetime flag, while the Third National Flag would become the wartime flag, though that proposal failed on the floor of the house.
Now that the war was over, Jefferson Davis was able to appoint a true Supreme Court, of 7 persons. John Campbell, John Marshall Harlan, Howell Edmunds Jackson, William J. Robertson, Alexander Rives, Nathaniel Job Hammond, and James Edward Cobb were appointed and would join the Confederate Supreme Court over the next five months.
A New Capital
Given the proximity of Washington, the Confederate Congress commissioned a survey to find a site for a new capital. Two promising locations would both involve Tennessee. One at the Tennessee/Alabama/Georgia border, the second at the Tennessee/Alabama/Mississippi border, both satisfying the 10-mile square requirements in the Constitution.
The five most popular choices, where the cession of land would be roughly equal between three states; blue square 1, 2, 3, or diamond 4, or 5?
Congress knew that the Confederacy was a largely rural nation and could not really compete on the international state with the United States. But they had rivers for transport, and they would soon have railroads built that would put the US to shame. So the Congress passed a bill setting immigration quota to 6% of the 1860 population until Dec 31, 1869, which was estimated to be 9,730,380, giving 583,823 persons.
The House Committee on Foreign Affairs set the quota for immigration to bring in persons from the United Kingdom, France, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries with skills in railroad technology, steam engines, machine tools, textile manufacturing, metal working from ore mining to making final products, architects, scientists, and engineers. The bill that came from committee required immigrants to be sponsored, have a specific destination, and once they had both they would be placed on an approval list to get an immigration permit, and the sponsor would be contacted to coordinate the arrival. The bill prioritized those with skills as described before, who could speak English (but it was not required), and had a strong family unit; a strong Christian or Jewish faith (Judah Benjamin spoke with the House on this bill) was often a plus, as church groups and synagogue groups would often sponsor immigrants. Over the next four years, the Confederates would welcome over 500,000 new persons, in roughly equal numbers of men and women, into their country with the necessary skills.
Unlike the United States to their north, Confederates didn't want bodies to perform menial factory work. They wanted intelligent people who could advance their nation and make it better.
Washington DC (July 15)
In a solemn ceremony, a new US flag was raised over the capitol building, with 12 fewer stars (Missouri was still counted since its plebiscite was not yet completed, and Oklahoma had been a US Territory, so it didn't have a star on the flag as of 1865).
26-star US flag, last used in 1822
United States (July to December)
Soldiers returned home defeated, and many wanted to return to their former lives. They had endured hardships but had fought what they believed was for a good cause - the Union. Many didn't believe that the South really freed their slaves, and would just enslave them again now that the war was over. Some of the soldiers blamed the black soldiers who fought with them, since so many had deserted to the southern side. The governor of Indiana had acted essentially as a dictator during the war and now that a large number of soldiers had returned home, he was removed from office by the legislature, which finally convened. Members of Congress met to determine the conduct of the war, and to begin their list of names for the tribunal which would start up shortly, beginning with Captain Wirz. Congress passed a pension bill to pay for invalids and widows and orphans.
People across the US still flew the old flag with 38 stars, refusing to take it down, as they didn't accept that they really lost.
Many Americans who had sided with the Confederacy left for the Confederacy, from Delaware, Maryland and elsewhere, while some midwesterners left for the Confederacy, if in lower numbers. About 50,000 came south into the Confederacy.
Papers across the north that had been closed due to Lincoln's so-called war powers re-opened, renewing the criticism of his performance of the war, his unconstitutional actions during the war, and even mentioning his genealogy, claiming his real father was Abraham Enloe, not Thomas Lincoln, and that he was born in 1805, not 1809.
Confederate States (July to December)
Celebrations abounded in cities big and small across the Confederate States, and the Third National Flag flew high and proudly in the wind everywhere, from Fort Sumter to San Diego, and very often close to the border with the United States. Since the majority of the South had not been devastated by Sherman's March (only portions of Tennessee and Kentucky), a lot of people had livestock, and a lot of the existing population had not been disrupted, so the people could continue their lives as before the war, but holding their heads up a little higher since they had defeated the Yankees, who would no longer be able to tell them what to do.
Blacks celebrated the victory that they had played a part in; the Confederates had been true to their word and were beginning to emancipate them. Free blacks, who could already read and write, were teaching their black slaves how to read and write, and making sure they had a trade. White slave owners began the process as well, if slowly. Many slaves could already read and write, despite the laws against it; now it was out in the open.
The Confederates began building their border fence with the United States, both sides appropriating money to build the fence and the gates by the end of August, as it would help prevent smuggling and help control immigration.
Within the few months after independence, some Confederates who had sided with the Union, mostly in Kentucky, Tennessee, western North Carolina, and some in western South Carolina, decided to leave the Confederacy so they could stay with the Union. Over 80,000 men, women, and children headed northwest, and began settling north of Kansas and west of Iowa in accordance with the treaty that had just been signed. Another 40,000 or so decided to leave altogether, settling in Brazil, British South Africa, and even Argentina's southern cone.
The Confederates who moved to the west would benefit from the Army's war on the Indians, but would also ensure that the western US culture would remain conservative to the present day.
Notably Joseph Ruggles Wilson and Jessie Janet Woodrow would choose to immigrate to the United States, settling in Maryland with their children and slaves, retaining their US citizenship.
Missouri (November 11)
With the end of the war, and the removal of both Confederate and Union troops from Missouri, the people of the state were beginning to rebuild, and newspapers had reopened, filled with lurid tales of Union General John Turchin, the German Forty-Eighters, and other Union depravity, filling headline after headline for months. Missouri's governor set the plebiscite for November 11, a Saturday, and the outcome was beyond a contest. Missouri vote to join the Confederacy by 58.5%.
The Missourians had 3 options: Join the Union, Join the Confederacy, or split the state north/south at the river. Those north of the Missouri river voted to remain in the Union by 55/45, while those south of the river voted 72/28 to remain in the Confederacy
Another good update jjohnson.